Insect vectors tend to be more active at higher temperatures. For example, tropical mosquitoes such as anopheles species, which transmit malaria, require temperatures above 16°C to complete their life cycles. Some vectorborne diseases such as malaria are also thought of as water-vectored diseases, since mosquitoes typically thrive in aquatic habitats, where they lay their eggs in water-filled containers. Thus, epidemics of malaria tend to occur during rainy seasons in the tropics. In contrast, epidemics of the mosquito-borne West Nile virus infection can occur during times of drought. This happens because mosquitoes and birds (the primary hosts of the virus) are brought into proximity at scarce water sources, enhancing the transmission of the virus. In addition, the populations of the natural predators of mosquitoes are greatly reduced during times of drought, as wetlands dry up.
There are some widely cited examples suggesting that climate change has already resulted in the introduction of certain infectious diseases into previously unaffected geographic areas. One such example is the spread of malaria into highland regions of East Africa, where this disease previously did not exist. This spread occurred in the setting of weather that was much warmer and wetter than usual; it resulted in high rates of illness and death, because the disease was introduced into a largely nonimmune population.- http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmp0912931
My name is Nora Hill, I'm a senior in high school at the Vermont Commons School. My social studies class has allowed us to spend 20% of our time focused on a current day global issue that interests us, and I have chosen the effect climate change will have on infectious diseases. This blog will be my process of learning about the issue and what I can do to address it.
Climate change is arguably the biggest issue facing my generation, but many people don't realize how far reaching these effects will be. Climate change will change global health, particularly with climate sensitive diseases that are food borne, air borne, insect borne, and water borne. Some of the most climate sensitive disease are: malaria, cholera, Lyme Disease, and West Nile virus. For general information on the impact of climate change on infectious disease check out this information from WHO .